Carolyn McMakin graduated from chiropractic college in 1994, developed frequency specific microcurrent (FSM) in 1996, and began teaching it in 1997. In addition to maintaining a part-time clinical practice, she teaches seminars on the use of FSM in the United States, Australia, Europe, and the Middle East. She has authored eight clinical research papers, lectured at the National Institutes of Health and at medical conferences in the United States, England, Ireland, and Australia on the subjects of fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndrome, fibromyalgia associated with spine trauma, and on the differential diagnosis and treatment of pain and sports injuries. Her textbook, Frequency Specific Microcurrent in Pain Management, was published by Elsevier in 2010. In addition to treating patients and publishing articles, she has taught courses on frequency specific microcurrent therapy around the world and now maintains a part-time practice in Portland, Oregon.